Jerusalem

Jerusalem
History Of Jerusalem

3500 BCE
Jerusalem first settled on the Ophel above the Gihon Spring

19th Century BCE
Jerusalem listed in the Egyptian Execration Texts
first recorded mention of the city as Rusalimum

1750 BCE 1500 BCE

The Hyksos Period


14th Century BCE
The name Jerusalem appears in diplomatic correspondence
as Urusalim in the Amarna Letters
1010-970
The reign of King David
1003
King David establishes Jerusalem as Capital of
United Kingdom of Israel
970-931
The reign of King Solomon
950
King Solomon commences construction of the First Temple.
931
Division of Kingdom into Israel and Judah.
837-800
The reign of Hezekiah, King of Judah tunnels conduit from
Gihon spring to Siloam pool.
721
Assyrians conquer northern Kingdom of Israel and carry 10 of
the 12 tribes into captivity and eventual dispersal.
701
Hezekiah successfully withstands Sennacherib's assault
on Jerusalem.
598-587
Nebuchadnezzar's second invasion
597
Babylonians capture Jerusalem
588-586
Nebuchadnezzar's third invasion
586
Destruction of Jerusalem and of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar,
and the exile of the Jews to Babylon (Lam 1.4 / 2.2)
539
Fall of Babylon

537 BCE 332 BCE

The Persian Period


538
Edict of Cyrus
537
Remnant of about 50,000 Jews return from Babylon by edict
of King Cyrus
520
Work begins on rebuilding the Temple
515
Completion and rededication of the Second Temple under
Zerubbabel (Ezra 6.15-18)
458
Ezra the Scribe comes from Babylon Law revived
445
Nehemiah appointed governor of Judea by Artaxerxes,
return from Babylon rebuilds city walls
397
Ezra, the Scribe initiates religious reforms

332 BCE 63 BCE

The Hellenistic Period


332
Alexander the Great defeats Daruis at Gaugamela and conquers
Palestine from the Persians (Daniel 11.3) captures Jerusalem
and Helenization begins
323
Death of Alexander in Babylon Wars of Succession begin
320
Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem
320-198
Rule of the Egyptian Ptolemies
198-167
Rule of the Syrian Seleucids
169
Seleucid king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-163) outlaws
Judaism and on December 25th, profanes the Temple

167 BCE 63 BCE

The Hasmonean Period


166
The priest Mattathias begins Maccabean revolt
167-141
Maccabean War of Liberation
164
Judah Maccabee recaptures Jerusalem and restores the Temple
166-160
Rule of Judah the Maccabee
160-143
Rule of Jonathan
150
Essene community founded
143-135
Rule of Simon Maccabeus

63 BCE 324 CE/ADshield

The Roman Period


63
General Pompey captures Jerusalem for Rome
63-37
Hasmonean rules continues but under the protection of Rome
40
Rome appoints Herod King of Judea
40-AD 4
Reign of Herod the Great
37
King Herod the Great captures Jerusalem
19
Preparation of stones for the rebuilding of the Temple
18
Herod starts actual rebuilding of the Temple
10
Although not complete until AD63, Temple is dedicated
About 5/4
John the Baptist, Jesus of Nazareth born (year approximate)
04
Herod the Great dies

 
BCE to CE/AD

26-36
Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea for 10 years

31 April 25 / Nisan 14
Crucifixion of Jesus

41-44
Agrippa, king of Judea, builds new city wall (The "Third Wall").
44
Death of Herod Agrippa
63
Temple completed
64
66-73
The Great Revolt - The War of the Jews
against the Romans
70
Fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the Second
Temple by Titus
73
Fall of Masada
132-135
Bar Kochba's war of freedom - Jerusalem again the Jewish
Capital
135
Emperor Hadrian's total destruction of Jerusalem and building
of new walls and new city renamed Aelia Capitolina Jews not
allowed in Jerusalem

324 638

The Byzantine Period


326
Queen Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine the Great, visits
Jerusalem, determines locations of events associated with the last
days of Jesus, and causes churches to be build to commemorate
them, most notably the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in AD 335.

438
Empress Eudocia permits Jews to live in Jerusalem
614
Persian conquest of Jerusalem They destroy most churches
and expel Jews
629
Recaptured by Byzantines.

638 1099

The Early Muslim Period


638
Six years after Mohammed's death, the Caliph Omar enters
Jerusalem and Jews are readmitted to Jerusalem
691
Dome of the Rock completed by Caliph Abd al-Malik
701
The construction of the al-Aqsa mosque completed
by Caliph al-Walid
1010
Caliph al-Hakim orders destruction of synagogues
and churches

1099 1244

The Crusader Kingdom

1099
Crusaders, led by Godfrey de Bouillon, capture of
Jerusalem following Pope Urban's call in 1096.
Baldwin I declared King of Jerusalem
1187
Kurdish general Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders.
He permits Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city.
1192
Richard the Lion Heart attempts to re-capture Jerusalem
but fails.
Treaty with Saladin permitting Christians to worship at their
Holy sites.
1219
City walls razed by Sultan Malik-al-Muattam
1244
Khawarizmian Turks capture Jerusalem. End of Crusader rule.

1260 1517

The Mameluk Period


1244
Mameluk Sultans defeat the Ayyubids and rule Jerusalem
1260
The Mameluks of Egypt capture Jerusalem
1267
Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahman (Nahmanides) arrives from Spain,
revives the Jewish congregation and establishes synagogue and
center of learning bearing his name.
1275
Marco Polo stops in Jerusalem on his way to China
1348
The Black Death Plague hits Jerusalem
1488
Rabbi Obadiah of Bertinoro settles in Jerusalem and
leads the community.

1517 1917

The Ottoman Turkish Period


1517
Ottomans effect peaceful takeover of Jerusalem
1537-1541
Unwalled since 1219, Sultan Suleiman ("The Magnificent"),
rebuilds the city walls including the present day 7 gates and the
"Tower of David." The Damascus gate in 1542.
1700
Rabbi Yehuda He'Hassid arrives, starts building
"Hurva" Synagogue
1836
First visit of Sir Moses Montefiore
1838
First consulate (British) opened in Jerusalem
1860
First Jewish settlement outside walls of the city
1898
Visit by Dr. Theodor Herzl, founder of the World Zionist
Organization.

1917 1948

The British Mandate Period


1917
British conquest and General Allenby's entry into Jerusalem.
1918
Dr. Chaim Weizmann lays foundation stone of
Hebrew University on Mount Scopus.
1920
Sir Herbert Samuel appointed first British High Commissioner
and "Government House" established in Jerusalem.
1925
Hebrew University buildings inaugurated.
1947
United Nations Resolution recommending the partition of Israel.

1948

The Israeli Period


14 May 1948
British Mandate ends and State of Israel Proclaimed.
14 May 1948-Jan 1949
Israel War of Liberation.
28 May 1948
New City of Jerusalem remains intact but Jewish Quarter in
Old City falls.
April 1949
Israel-TransJordan Armistice Agreement signed, whereby
Jerusalem divided between the two countries.
13 Dec 1949
Jerusalem is Declared Capital of the State of Israel.
1965
Teddy Kollek elected Mayor of Jerusalem
5 June 1967
Jordan shells and mortars New City on opening day of
the Six Day War.
7 June 1967
Israeli troops capture Old City and Jerusalem reunites.
23 June 1967
Moslems and Christians and Jews again given access
to their Holy Places.
1980
Jerusalem Basic Law enacted declaring united Jerusalem to be
capital of Israel.
1994
Mutual recognition of Israel and the PLO

 






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