Jerusalem first settled on the Ophel above the Gihon Spring
19th Century BCE
Jerusalem listed in the Egyptian Execration Texts —
first recorded mention of the city as Rusalimum
1750 BCE — 1500 BCE
The Hyksos Period
14th Century BCEThe name Jerusalem appears in diplomatic correspondence
as Urusalim in the Amarna Letters
1010-970The reign of King David
1003King David establishes Jerusalem as Capital ofUnited Kingdom of Israel
970-931The reign of King Solomon
950King Solomon commences construction of the First Temple.
931Division of Kingdom into Israel and Judah.
837-800The reign of Hezekiah, King of Judah – tunnels conduit from
Gihon spring to Siloam pool.
721Assyrians conquer northern Kingdom of Israel and carry 10 of
the 12 tribes into captivity and eventual dispersal.
701Hezekiah successfully withstands Sennacherib's assaulton Jerusalem.
598-587Nebuchadnezzar's second invasion
597Babylonians capture Jerusalem
588-586Nebuchadnezzar's third invasion
586Destruction of Jerusalem and of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar,
and the exile of the Jews to Babylon (Lam 1.4 / 2.2)
539Fall of Babylon
537 BCE — 332 BCE
The Persian Period
538Edict of Cyrus
537Remnant of about 50,000 Jews return from Babylon by edictof King Cyrus
520Work begins on rebuilding the Temple
515Completion and rededication of the Second Temple under
Zerubbabel (Ezra 6.15-18)
458Ezra the Scribe comes from Babylon — Law revived
445Nehemiah appointed governor of Judea by Artaxerxes,
return from Babylon – rebuilds city walls
397Ezra, the Scribe initiates religious reforms
332 BCE — 63 BCE
The Hellenistic Period
332Alexander the Great defeats Daruis at Gaugamela and conquers
Palestine from the Persians (Daniel 11.3) captures Jerusalem
and Helenization begins
323Death of Alexander in Babylon — Wars of Succession begin
320Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem
320-198Rule of the Egyptian Ptolemies
198-167Rule of the Syrian Seleucids
169Seleucid king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-163) outlaws
Judaism and on December 25th, profanes the Temple
167 BCE — 63 BCE
The Hasmonean Period
166The priest Mattathias begins Maccabean revolt
167-141Maccabean War of Liberation
164Judah Maccabee recaptures Jerusalem and restores the Temple
166-160Rule of Judah the Maccabee
160-143Rule of Jonathan
150Essene community founded
143-135Rule of Simon Maccabeus
63 BCE — 324 CE/AD
The Roman Period
63General Pompey captures Jerusalem for Rome
63-37Hasmonean rules continues but under the protection of Rome
40Rome appoints Herod King of Judea
40-AD 4Reign of Herod the Great
37King Herod the Great captures Jerusalem
19Preparation of stones for the rebuilding of the Temple
18Herod starts actual rebuilding of the Temple
10Although not complete until AD63, Temple is dedicated
About 5/4John the Baptist, Jesus of Nazareth born (year approximate)
04Herod the Great dies
BCE to CE/AD|
26-36Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea for 10 years
31 April 25 / Nisan 14Crucifixion of Jesus
41-44Agrippa, king of Judea, builds new city wall (The "Third Wall").
44Death of Herod Agrippa
66-73The Great Revolt - The War of the Jewsagainst the Romans
70Fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the SecondTemple by Titus
73Fall of Masada
132-135Bar Kochba's war of freedom - Jerusalem again the JewishCapital
135Emperor Hadrian's total destruction of Jerusalem and building
of new walls and new city renamed Aelia Capitolina — Jews notallowed in Jerusalem
324 — 638
The Byzantine Period
326Queen Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine the Great, visits
Jerusalem, determines locations of events associated with the last
days of Jesus, and causes churches to be build to commemorate
them, most notably the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in AD 335.
438Empress Eudocia permits Jews to live in Jerusalem
614Persian conquest of Jerusalem — They destroy most churches
and expel Jews
629Recaptured by Byzantines.
638 — 1099
The Early Muslim Period
638Six years after Mohammed's death, the Caliph Omar enters
Jerusalem and Jews are readmitted to Jerusalem
691Dome of the Rock completed by Caliph Abd al-Malik
701The construction of the al-Aqsa mosque completedby Caliph al-Walid
1010Caliph al-Hakim orders destruction of synagoguesand churches
1099 — 1244
The Crusader Kingdom
1099Crusaders, led by Godfrey de Bouillon, capture ofJerusalem following Pope Urban's call in 1096.
Baldwin I declared King of Jerusalem
1187Kurdish general Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders.
He permits Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city.
1192Richard the Lion Heart attempts to re-capture Jerusalembut fails.
Treaty with Saladin permitting Christians to worship at theirHoly sites.
1219City walls razed by Sultan Malik-al-Muattam
1244Khawarizmian Turks capture Jerusalem. End of Crusader rule.
1260 — 1517
The Mameluk Period
1244Mameluk Sultans defeat the Ayyubids and rule Jerusalem
1260The Mameluks of Egypt capture Jerusalem
1267Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahman (Nahmanides) arrives from Spain,
revives the Jewish congregation and establishes synagogue and
center of learning bearing his name.
1275Marco Polo stops in Jerusalem on his way to China
1348The Black Death Plague hits Jerusalem
1488Rabbi Obadiah of Bertinoro settles in Jerusalem andleads the community.
1517 — 1917
The Ottoman Turkish Period
1517Ottomans effect peaceful takeover of Jerusalem
1537-1541Unwalled since 1219, Sultan Suleiman ("The Magnificent"),
rebuilds the city walls including the present day 7 gates and the
"Tower of David." The Damascus gate in 1542.
1700Rabbi Yehuda He'Hassid arrives, starts building"Hurva" Synagogue
1836First visit of Sir Moses Montefiore
1838First consulate (British) opened in Jerusalem
1860First Jewish settlement outside walls of the city
1898Visit by Dr. Theodor Herzl, founder of the World ZionistOrganization.
1917 — 1948
The British Mandate Period
1917British conquest and General Allenby's entry into Jerusalem.
1918Dr. Chaim Weizmann lays foundation stone ofHebrew University on Mount Scopus.
1920Sir Herbert Samuel appointed first British High Commissionerand "Government House" established in Jerusalem.
1925Hebrew University buildings inaugurated.
1947United Nations Resolution recommending the partition of Israel.
The Israeli Period
14 May 1948British Mandate ends and State of Israel Proclaimed.
14 May 1948-Jan 1949Israel War of Liberation.
28 May 1948New City of Jerusalem remains intact but Jewish Quarter inOld City falls.
April 1949Israel-TransJordan Armistice Agreement signed, whereby
Jerusalem divided between the two countries.
13 Dec 1949Jerusalem is Declared Capital of the State of Israel.
1965Teddy Kollek elected Mayor of Jerusalem
5 June 1967Jordan shells and mortars New City on opening day ofthe Six Day War.
7 June 1967Israeli troops capture Old City and Jerusalem reunites.
23 June 1967Moslems and Christians and Jews again given accessto their Holy Places.
1980Jerusalem Basic Law enacted declaring united Jerusalem to becapital of Israel.
1994Mutual recognition of Israel and the PLO